My research interests are primarily focussed on all aspects of bees, including their diversity and taxonomy, ecology, and conservation with particular focus on the Canadian fauna. There are over 800 species of bees in Canada (200 species and counting in Saskatchewan), and many make important contributions to pollination of native and crop plant species. In addition to taxonomic research, I am interested in the impact that anthropogenic factors have on bee populations in the prairies, bee and pollination conservation, and investigating ways to encourage and manage native bees for pollination.
I am also interested in plant reproductive biology, especially insect pollinated species, and in general biodiversity/ecology studies of insects, spiders, and other arthropods of the prairie and adjacent regions.
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Bee Taxonomy and Systematics
I am currently doing taxonomic revisions of the Canadian bee fauna. Currently, this includes the Canadian species of Andrena (Andrenidae), and the Anthophoriini (Anthophora and Habropoda: Apidae). I am also doing a revision and phylogeny of the subgenus Megachiloides (genus Megachile), a group found in southern Canada to northern Mexico. In the future, I hope to continue work on the taxonomy of the Canadian hymenopteran fauna. My research in taxonomy includes integrating morphology and molecular (i.e. DNA barcoding) approaches, including the use of a state of the art digital imaging system to produce web-based interactive keys.
Bee Ecology and Conservation
I am interested in researching the aspects of the life history of bees (and other Hymenoptera) to answer questions like: Where do they nest? What do they require for food? How do they survive winter? What can we do to promote, conserve, and perhaps manage bee species to meet our future pollination needs?
Pollination and Plant Reproduction
As bees are the most important pollinators, I am interested in understanding the details of pollination, including the mechanisms by which it is achieved in natural and crop plants.
If you are interested in bees, their conservation, and/or in the important ecological services they provide, and are thinking of pursuing graduate studies in this or related areas, please contact me so we can discuss potential projects and funding options. Although I will continuously be looking for funding opportunities for exciting bee-related projects, students who have secured external funding and/or scholarships would be most welcome. Of course, other ideas for diversity/ecology projects with other insect/arthropod groups are welcome, so please contact me via email, and let me know of your interests, education/experiences and what type of project(s) you are interested in.
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Williams, P.H., S.G. Cannings, and C.S. Sheffield. 2016. Cryptic subarctic diversity: a new bumblebee species from the Yukon and Alaska (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Journal of Natural History http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2016.1214294
Heron, J., and C.S. Sheffield. 2016. First Canadian record of the water mite Thermacarus nevadensis Marshall, 1928 (Arachnida: Acariformes: Hydrachnidiae: Thermacaridae) from hot springs in British Columbia. Biodiversity Data Journal 4(e9550).
Sheffield, C.S., H.T. Ngo, and N. Azzu. 2016. A Manual on Apple Pollination. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 44pp. ISBN 978-92-5-109171-5.
Sheffield, C.S., L. Richardson, S. Cannings, H. Ngo, J. Heron, and P.H. Williams. 2016. Biogeography and designatable units of Bombus occidentalis Greene and B. terricola Kirby (Hymenoptera: Apidae) with implications for conservation status assessments. Journal of Insect Conservation 20(2): 189–199.
Frier, D. C.M. Somers, and C.S. Sheffield. 2016. Comparing the performance of native and managed pollinators of Haskap (Lonicera caerulea: Caprifoliaceae), an emerging fruit crop. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 219: 42–48.
Heron, J., and C. S. Sheffield. 2015. First record of the Lasioglossum (Dialictus) petrellum species group in Canada (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 112: 88-91.
Williams, P.H., A.M. Byvaltsev, B. Cederberg, M.V. Berezin, F. Ødegaard, C. Rasmussen, L.L. Richardson, J. Huang, C.S. Sheffield, and S.T. Williams. 2015. Genes suggest arctic bumblebees combine morphologically cryptic species with ancestral colour polymorphisms that cut across species. PLOS ONE E 10(12): e0144544. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144544
Rader, R., I. Bartomeus, L.A. Garibaldi, M.P.D. Garratt, B.G. Howlett, R. Winfree, S.A. Cunningham, M.M. Mayfield, A.D. Arthur, G.K.S. Andersson, R. Bommarco, C. Brittain, L.G. Carvalheiro, N.P. Chacoff, M.H. Entling, B. Foully, B.M. Freitas, B. Gemmill-Herren, J. Ghazoul, S.R. Griffin, C.L. Gross, L. Herbertsson, F. Herzog, J. Hipólito, S. Jaggar, F. Jauker, A. Klein, D. Kleijn, S. Krishnan, C.Q. Lemos, S.A.M. Lindström, Y. Mandelik, V.M. Monteiro, W. Nelson, L. Nilsson, D.E. Pattemore, N.O. Pereirat, G. Pisanty, S.G. Potts, M. Reemer, M. Rundlöf, C.S. Sheffield, J. Scheper, C. Schüepp, H.G. Smith, D.A. Stanley, J.C. Stout, H. Szentgyörgyi, H. Taki, C.H. Vergara, B.F. Viana, and M. Woyciechowskinn. 2015. Non-bee insects are important contributors to global crop pollination. PNAS www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1517092112
Sheffield, C.S., M.A. Wilkes, G.C. Cutler, and L. Hermanutz. 2014. An artificial nesting substrate for Osmia species that nest under stones, with focus on Osmia inermis (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Insect Conservation and Diversity 8: 189-192. doi: 10.1111/icad.12095.
Cutler, G.C., V.O. Nams, P. Craig, J.M. Sproule, and C.S. Sheffield. 2015 . Wild bee pollinator communities of lowbush blueberry fields: spatial and temporal trends. Basic and Applied Ecology 16: 73-85.
Sheffield, C.S., S.D. Frier, and S Dumesh. 2014. The Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Apiformes) of the Prairies Ecozone, with Comparisons to other Grasslands of Canada. In Arthropods of Canadian Grasslands (Volume 4): Biodiversity and Systematics Part 2. Edited by D. J. Giberson and H. A. Cárcamo. Biological Survey of Canada. pp. 427-467.
Sheffield, C.S. 2014. Pollination, seed set and fruit quality in apple: studies with Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada. Journal of Pollination Ecology 12(13): 120-128.
Sheffield, C.S., and. J.-M. Perron. 2014. Annotated catalogue of the bees described by Léon Provancher (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apiformes). Canadian Entomologist 146: 117-169. doi:10.4039/tce.2013.64.
Sheffield, C.S., and J.A. Genaro. 2013. A new species of Megachile (Litomegachile) from Cuba,the Antilles (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Journal of Melittology 19: 1-17.
Sheffield, C.S. 2013. A new species of Megachile subgenus Megachiloides s.str. (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae).ZooKeys 283: 43–58.
Sheffield, C.S., A. Pindar, L. Packer, and P.G. Kevan. 2013. The potential of cleptoparasitic bees as indicator taxa for assessing bee communities. Apidologie 44: doi: 10.1007/s13592-013-0200-2.
Stahlhut, J.K., J. Fernández-Triana, S.J. Adamowicz, M. Buck, H. Goulet, P.D.N. Hebert, J.T. Huber, M.T. Merilo, C.S. Sheffield, T. Woodcock, and M.A. Smith. 2013. DNA barcoding reveals diversity of Hymenoptera and the dominance of parasitoids in a sub-Arctic environment. BMC Ecology 13:2 (http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6785/13/2).
Sheffield, C.S., P.G. Kevan, A. Pindar, and L. Packer. 2013. Bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) diversity within apple orchards and old fields habitats in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada. Canadian Entomologist 145: 94-114.
Stahlhut, J.K., J. Gibbs, C.S. Sheffield, M.A. Smith, and L. Packer. 2012. Wolbachia infections and bee barcoding: A response to Gerth et al. Systematics and Biodiversity 10: 395-401.
Colla, S.R., M. Arduser, J. Ascher, J. Cane, M. Deyrup, S. Droege, J. Gibbs, T. Griswold, G. Hall, J. Neff, R.P. Jean, M. Rightmyer, C. Sheffield, M. Veit, A. Wolf. 2012. A rapid approach documenting persistence and absence of eastern North American bee species to 1990-2009. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 85: 14-22.
Williams, P.H., A. Byvaltsev, C.S. Sheffield, and P. Rasmont. 2012. Bombus cullumanus – an extinct European bumblebee species? Apidologie 43: 121-132 (doi: 10.1007/s13592-012-0161-x).
Dumesh, S., and C.S. Sheffield. 2012. Bees of the Genus Dufourea Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Rophitinae) of Canada. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification No. 18, 11 May 2012, available online athttp://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/ejournal/ds_20/ds_20.html, doi: 10.3752/cjai.2012.20.
Smith, M.A., C. Bertrand, K. Crosby, E.S. Eveleigh, J. Fernandez-Triana, B.L. Fisher, J. Gibbs, M. Hajibabaei, W. Hallwachs, K. Hind, J. Hrcek, Huang, M. Janda, D.H. Janzen, Y. Li, S.E. Miller, L. Packer, D. Quicke, S. Ratnasingham, J. Rodriguez, R. Rougerie, M.R. Shaw, C. Sheffield, J.K. Stahlhut, D. Steinke, J. Whitfield, M. Wood, and X. Zhou. 2012.Wolbachia and DNA barcoding insects: patterns, potential, and problems. PLoS ONE 7(5): e36514. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036514.
Williams, P.H., Brown, M.J.F., Carolan, J.C., Goulson, D., An, Jiandong, Aytekin, A.M., Best, L.R., Byvaltsev, A.M., Cederberg, B., Dawson, R., Huang, J., Ito, M., Monfared, A., Raina, R.H., Schmid-Hempel, P., Sheffield, C.S., Šima, P., Xie, Z. 2012. Assessing cryptic species of the bumblebee subgenus Bombus s. str. world-wide with COI barcodes (Hymenoptera: Apidae).Systematic Entomology iFirst: 1-36. DOI:10.1080/14772000.2012.664574
Sheffield, C.S., C. Ratti, L. Packer, and T. Griswold. 2011. Leafcutter and mason bees of the genus MegachileLatreille (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Canada and Alaska. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification 18: 1-107. available online at http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/ejournal/srpg_18/srpg_18.html, doi: 10.3752/cjai.2011.18.
Sheffield, C.S., and P.H. Williams. 2011. Discovery of Bombus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in continental North America. Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario 142: 53-56.
Sheffield, C.S., S. Dumesh, and M. Cheryomina. 2011. Hylaeus punctatus (Hymenoptera: Colletidae), a bee species new to Canada with a review of other non-native species. Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario 142: 29-43.
Richards, M.H., A. Rutgers-Kelly, J. Gibbs, J.L. Vickruck, S.M. Rehan, and C. Sheffield. 2011. Bee diversity in naturalizing patches of Carolinian grasslands in southern Ontario. Canadian Entomologist 143: 279-299.
Vickruck, J.L., S.M. Rehan, C.S. Sheffield, and M.H. Richards. 2011. Nesting Biology and barcode analysis of two cryptic species within Ceratina dupla, with comparisons to C. calcarata (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopinae).Canadian Entomologist 143: 254-262.
Rehan, S.M., and C.S. Sheffield. 2011. Morphological and molecular delineation of a new species in the Ceratina dupla species-group (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of eastern North America. Zootaxa 2873: 35-50.
Droege, S., M.G. Rightmyer, C.S. Sheffield, and S.G. Brady. 2010. New synonymies in the bee genus Nomada from North America (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Zootaxa 2661: 1-32.
Sheffield, C.S., M. Richards, and T. Griswold. 2010. Discovery of the Old World bee, Megachile (Pseudomegachile) ericetorum (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), in Ontario, Canada. Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario 141: 85-92.
Packer, L., C.S. Sheffield, J. Gibbs, N. de Silva, L.R. Best, J. Ascher, R. Ayala, R., D. Martins, S.P.M. Roberts, O. Tadauchi, M. Kuhlmann, P.H. Williams, C. Eardley, S. Droege, and T.V. Levchenko. 2009. The campaign to barcode the bees of the world: progress, problems, prognosis. In: C.L. Yurrita (Ed.) Memorias VI Congreso Mesoamericano sobre Abejas Nativas. Antigua, Guatemala, pp. 178-180.
Sheffield C.S., P.D.N. Hebert, P.G. Kevan, and L. Packer. 2009. DNA barcoding a regional bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) fauna and its potential for ecological studies. Molecular Ecology Resources 9 (suppl 1): 196-207.
Packer, L., J. Gibbs, C. Sheffield, and R. Hanner. 2009. DNA Barcoding and the mediocrity of morphology.Molecular Ecology Resources 9 (suppl. 1): 42-50.
Gibbs, J. and C.S. Sheffield. 2009. Rapid range expansion of the Wool-Carder Bee, Anthidium manicatum(Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), in North America. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 82: 21-29.
Sheffield, C.S., S.M. Westby, P.G. Kevan, and R.F. Smith. 2008. Winter management options for the orchard pollinator Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Nova Scotia. Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario 139: 3-18.
Sheffield, C.S., S.M. Westby, R.F. Smith, and P.G. Kevan. 2008. Potential of bigleaf lupine for building and sustaining Osmia lignaria populations for pollination of apple. Canadian Entomologist 140: 589-599.
Sheffield, C.S. 2008. Summer bees for spring crops? Potential problems with Megachile rotundata (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) as a pollinator of lowbush blueberry (Ericaceae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 81: 276-287.
Sheffield, C.S., P.G. Kevan, S.M. Westby, and R.F. Smith. 2008. Diversity of cavity-nesting bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) within apple orchards and wild habitats in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada. Canadian Entomologist 140: 235-249.
Packer, L., J.A. Genaro, and C.S. Sheffield. 2007. The Bee Genera of Eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification No. 3, 25 September 2007, available online athttp://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/ejournal/pgs03/pgs_03.html, doi: 10.3752/cjai.2007.03.
Sheffield, C.S., and S.M. Westby. 2007. The male of Megachile nivalis Friese, with an updated key to members of the subgenus Megachile s. str. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in North America. Journal of Hymenoptera Research16: 178-191.
Majka, C.G., T.K. Philips, and C. Sheffield. 2007. Ptinus sexpunctatus Panzer (Coleoptera: Anobiidae, Ptininae) newly recorded in North America. Entomolgical News 118: 73-76.
Majka, C.G., D.S. Chandler, C.S. Sheffield, and R.P. Webster. 2006. New records of Rhipiphoridae (Coleoptera) from the Maritime Provinces of Canada. Coleopterists Bulletin 60: 299–303.
Sheffield, C.S., R.F. Smith, and P.G. Kevan. 2005. Perfect syncarpy in apple (Malus x domestica ‘Summerland McIntosh’) and its implications for pollination, seed distribution and fruit production (Rosaceae: Maloideae). Annals of Botany 95: 583-591.
Smith, R.F., J.E. Cossentine, S.M. Rigby and C.S. Sheffield. 2004. Species of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in organic apple orchards of British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia101: 49-55.
Taki, H., J.W. Boone, B.F. Viana, F.O. Silva, P.G. Kevan, and C.S. Sheffield. 2004. Effect of shading on trap nest utilization by hole-nesting aculeate Hymenoptera. Canadian Entomologist 136: 889-891.
Sheffield, C.S., S.M. Rigby, R.F. Smith, and P.G. Kevan. 2004. Epeoloides pilosula (Hymenoptera: Apidae), an Important New Record for Nova Scotia, Canada, with Notes on Its Distribution. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 77: 161-164.
Sheffield, C.S., P.G. Kevan, R.F. Smith, S.M. Rigby, and R.E.L. Rogers. 2003. Bee Species of Nova Scotia, Canada, with New Records and Notes on Bionomics and Floral Relations (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 76: 357-384.
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